Shortcomings in the air picture include missing tracks, multiple track designations for one object, swaps of track number between objects, and object misidentification. These shortcomings have been manifest in. Incremental progress has been made in addressing these problems over the years, but a wholly adequate solution may not result unless a new COP for the air picture is designed from the ground up. Work is now being done on components that can be used for such a new development.
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Given the development of a common track manager, the issue will be the extent to which this track manager is available throughout the force all Services and inadequate legacy track-management capability is phased out. At the same time, however, as is noted above, the track data prior to processing by the common track manager should be accessible for those who have a need for those data. This requirement has implications with respect to the design of air picture systems in terms of the data interfaces and posting mechanisms that must be provided.
The maritime picture component of the COP applies to both the open ocean, which would be of interest in tracking ships suspected of terrorist intent, and to the littorals. This maritime picture is established from sensor data collected from national assets, aircraft, helicopters, and, in the future, from unmanned aerial vehicles UAVs. The airborne assets can be both naval and, potentially, those of other Services and coalition parties, too.
Navy officers interviewed during the study indicated that the quality of the current maritime picture, while improving over the past few years, still has significant shortcomings. In particular, sensor coverage typically is not adequate to provide full, persistent coverage, and those sensor inputs that are available are manually assembled rather than being networked together. The consequence of these shortcomings is a maritime picture that is far less complete and accurate than it could be. OPNAV staff had formulated a potential program, called the Single Integrated Maritime Picture, to network the sensors providing maritime surveillance, but this proposal was not included in the budget for funding.
A program such as that appears necessary to meet the surface threat in the littoral environment, including the possibility of swarms of small boats, particularly given the importance of littoral operations. The undersea picture component of the COP refers primarily to the location and identification of submarines and mines. There are significant shortcomings in the ability to detect quiet submarines and stealthy minefields see Chapter 7 , Section 7. Means for improving the networking of the undersea sensors also appear necessary, but the first priority is the need to improve the sensor detection and processing.
Those aspects of the ground picture component of the COP pertaining to a direct interaction of Marine Corps forces with hostile forces ashore are not considered here. The reason is that the scope of this study does not include the operational maneuver of Marine Corps forces ashore except for those aspects of the ground picture necessary for naval fires from or directed by expeditionary strike groups against ground targets in support of Marine Corps and other Service or coalition forces.
The distance inland that must be surveilled will increase greatly in the future as longer-range weapons for naval fires are deployed. This ground picture includes friendly, neutral, and hostile entities.
The identification and location of. AFATDS automates the fire planning, tactical fire direction, and fire-support coordination required to support maneuver from the sea and subsequent operations ashore. It provides a suite of tools and interfaces for horizontal and vertical integration across battlespace functional areas.
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ADOCS has evolved into the automated support system in actual wartime situations for deep operations in several theaters. The trackers used by the Marines are not yet part of a program of record, and interoperability problems exist between tracker types, although actions appear to be under way to resolve these issues.
The Navy is largely dependent on the sensors of other Services and on intelligence means to provide information on coalition, neutral, and hostile entities for the ground picture, although the Navy does have some applicable organic sensors see Chapter 7 , Section 7. At the present time there is no funded program—joint or in any of the Services—to provide a composite ground picture on which the Navy can draw. In the face of this uncertainty, the Navy should ensure that it has the necessary external inputs, and that these inputs can be correlated with organic Navy inputs, to provide it with the necessary ground picture.
As all the Services and intelligence entities move toward network-centric operations and post their sensor and other data, input from the external sources should become readily available to the Navy. Service-oriented architectures SOAs is a relatively new concept. Previous Naval Studies Board reports have pointed out this type of deficiency.
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That committee also noted, however, that building this technical infrastructure for network-centric operations is an exceptionally large undertaking. The programs, with the responsible organization for each, are listed and discussed below. Composable FORCEnet is the ability to select on the fly from a vast network specific information resources that are best suited to solving a particular problem or providing specific information Figure 4.
The ability to identify participants in the battlespace and to determine their organic capabilities and needs. The Air Force Joint Battlespace Infosphere JBI has developed a concept called the Force Template to support on-the-fly identification of participants, their capabilities, and their constraints. The ability to assemble the participants within a coalition working toward a common mission objective.
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Added here is that this capability includes the. The ability to exchange information within the coalition. The ability to establish new concepts of operation new ways of doing business that are consistent with the capabilities and constraints of the participants. The ability to introduce new capabilities to the coalition, either by adding functionality to existing coalition members or by adding new participants to the coalition. SPAWAR has conducted some early analysis on the mission value of a rapidly composable force for ad hoc warfare. The preliminary results indicate increased combat reach in selected scenarios: 9.
A percent increase in the interception range of the engagement envelope, and. A portfolio is linked to specific mission areas that the participant s can support. Participants, here, can range from single entities to multiple entities constituting a larger organization. The rows represent distinct participants; the columns represent capabilities and the specific subsystems.
There is also the need for this kind of composing capability when all systems are not working—that is, not only when assets are added but also when they are subtracted from a force. Phillip Charles. The wiring shows the information flows between the participants and the subsystems. The FnEP is defined by both the platform types including their organic capabilities and the wiring between them. It has not been demonstrated in experiments or exercises involving actual platforms. In addition, the concept is dependent on additional capabilities that are themselves only beginning to emerge or mature, including the following:.
The ability to discover the available participants on the fly through a registry. This is the objective of the Force Template concept described in the previous subsection. This Air Force program is making inroads but has not enjoyed the consistent funding required to move beyond the concept-formulation stage.
The ability to compose an Engagement Package. This is a nontrivial problem that requires a thorough analysis of all the factors that determine whether. One can expect that the analysis effort will grow exponentially with the number of participants that constitute an Engagement Package. The committee is not aware of Navy investments toward providing a a capability to compose an Engagement Package.
The ability to orchestrate the execution of the Engagement Package. The XTCF permits the exchange of data between different C2 systems through the use of loosely coupled, distributed, reusable, standards-based services. It uses the following Web services technologies:. Composable C2 requires a means for describing data, for establishing data dictionaries, and for identifying logically equivalent types of data 10 XML provides these means and is the de facto standard used by modern service-oriented architectures;.
Composable C2 requires a means for identifying services, for identifying equivalent types of services, and for invoking those services. WSDL lets the members of an enterprise describe the services they provide at multiple levels of abstraction to improve the chances that a service client will be able to 1 locate a satisfactory service provider and 2 invoke the service. WSDL also provides the means to convert abstract service descriptions and abstract service invocation methods into the specific messages required to communicate with the specific service providers present in an enterprise at any given time;.
Besides data, there will have to be judgments made about readiness, rules of engagement, and willingness to engage, for example, by coalition forces.
Related The Facility Management Handbook, Chapter 17: Command, Control and Communications
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