Optochemical Nanosensors (Series in Sensors)


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Keywords/Phrases

Fueled by their inherent small size and the unusual optical, magnetic, catalytic, and mechanical properties of nanoparticles, remarkable progress has been made in recent years in the development and utilization of nanosensors and optical nanotechnology will further widen the field. However, the design of new sensors requires new materials, new methods for their characterization, new optical sensing schemes, new approaches for creating nanosized structures, and new techniques for their interrogation in complex environments such as small living cells for studying biological signals or big public spaces for environmental monitoring.

Optochemical Nanosensors covers the rapidly growing field of optical chemical nanosensing, a new and exciting area of research and development within the large field of optical chemical sensing and biosensing. Its many applications, including the detection of bioterrorist threats, food security, virology, explosive detection and more, are covered in these self-contained yet interrelated chapters. The book reviews optochemical sensors, starting from the basics in optoelectronicsand concluding with the presentation of diverse nanosensors.

The authors offer insight into future trends in this growing field and present applications in the fields of medicine, security, and bioterrorism. Fundamentals of Photonics. Fundamentals of Optical Chemical Sensors. Photoluminescent Nanosensors. Cantilever-Based Sensors.

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Plasmonic Nanostructures and Nano-Antennas for Sensing. Nano-Optical Sensors for Virology. Nano-Optical Sensors for Explosive Detection. Effective date : Kind code of ref document : A1. Countries concerned : BAME. Surface plasmon-based nanosensor 10 , comprising: at least one first element of metal 14 , preferably silver or gold, or of semiconductor, the first element 14 , preferably a nanoparticle 14 , being excitable to surface Plasmon resonance, in particular localized surface plasmon resonance, in the presence of electromagnetic radiation 16 from a source, and at least one second element 18 , preferably a quantum dot 18 , preferably near the first element 14 at a distance R that in the presence of the electromagnetic radiation 16 is exciton-plasmon coupled to the first element 14 and emits electromagnetic radiation 20 representative of the exciton-plasmon coupling, and systems and methods for sensing photons and chemical or biological agents.

Best Reference Books – Nanosensors

The present invention relates to surface plasmon-based nanosensors, a system for sensing photons, a system for sensing chemical or biological agents, a method for sensing photons and a method for sensing chemical or biological agents. Nano-scale systems have demonstrated many novel and interesting optical properties. These systems are extremely important for future photon-based devices among many other applications.

One of the most important nano-devices are nanosensors. This aim is achieved by a surface plasmon-based nanosensor, comprising: at least one first element of metal, preferably silver or gold, or of semiconductor, the first element being excitable to surface plasmon resonance, in particular localized surface Plasmon resonance, in the presence of electromagnetic radiation from a source, and at least one second element preferably near the first element that in the presence of the electromagnetic radiation is exiton-plasmon coupled to the first element and emits electromagnetic radiation representative of the exiton-plasmon coupling.

Said nanosensor might be called "a plasmonic sensor" as well and can be categorized as an optical sensor. The at least one first element and the at least one second element are usually different. According to further a further aspect, this aim is also achieved by a system for sensing photons of electromagnetic radiation from an external source, comprising: a surface plasmon-based nanosensor according to any one of claims 1 to 3 and a detector for detecting electromagnetic radiation emitted by the second element in response to electromagnetic radiation from an external source.

Further, according to further aspect the invention provides a system for sensing chemical or biological agents, comprising: a surface plasmon-based nanosensor according to claim 3 or 4, and a detector for detecting electromagnetic radiation emitted by the second element in response to the electromagnetic radiation from an external source or the internal source with a chemical or biological agent in direct or indirect contact with the at least one first element, in particular further comprising an evaluation unit for evaluating the identity of the chemical or biological agent based on the detected electromagnetic radiation.

This aim also achieved by a surface plasmon-based nanosensor , comprising: at least one first element of metal, preferably silver or gold, or of semiconductor, the first element being excitable to surface plasmon resonance, in particular localized surface plasmon resonance, in the presence of electromagnetic radiation from a source and at least one second element preferably near the first element for exciting surface plasmon resonance of the at least one first element.

Further, this aim is achieved by a system for sensing chemical or biological agents, comprising: a surface plasmon-based nanosensor according the claim 10 or 11, a pumping unit for pumping the at least one second element and a detector for detecting the total electromagnetic radiation emitted by the at least one first element and the at least one second element in response to the electromagnetic radiation emitted by an external source or the internal source and incident on the at least one first element and the at least one second element with a chemical or biological agent in direct or indirect contact with the at least one first element.

The present invention is also directed to the use of a nanosensor according to any one of claims 1 to 3 or 8 to 10 or of a system according to claim 5 or 12 for sensing photons and the use of a nanosensor according to claims 3,4,10 or 11 or of a system according to claim 6 or 13 for sensing chemical or biological agents.

The present invention also provides a method for sensing photons of electromagnetic radiation from a source, comprising; irradiating at least one first element of metal, preferably silver or gold, or of semiconductor, excitable to surface plasmon resonance, in particular localized surface plasmon resonance, with electromagnetic radiation from a source for exciting surface plasmon resonance on said at least one first element, providing for exciton-plasmon coupling between the at least one first element and at least one second element and for emission of electromagnetic radiation by the at least one second element, and detecting the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the at least one second element.

Also, the present invention provides a method for sensing photons of electromagnetic radiation from a source, comprising: irradiating at least one first element of metal, preferably silver or gold, or of semiconductor, excitable to surface plasmon resonance, in particular localized surface plasmon resonance, and at least one second element with electromagnetic radiation from a source, the at least one second element being pumped by pumping unit for exciting surface plasmon resonance on or in the at least first element and detecting the total electromagnetic radiation emitted by the exiton-plasmon coupled pumped at least one second element and at least one first element.

In addition, the present invention provides a method for sensing chemical or biological agents, comprising: directly or indirectly contacting at least one first element of metal, preferably silver or gold, or of semiconductor, excitable to surface plasmon resonance, in particular localized surface plasmon resonance, with a sample comprising a chemical or biological agent to be sensed, irradiating the at least one first element with electromagnetic radiation from an internal or external source for exciting surface plasmon resonance on said at least one first element, providing for exciton-plasmon coupling between the at least one first element and the at least one second element and for emission of electromagnetic radiation by the at least one second element, and detecting the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the at least one second element.


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Finally, the present invention provides a method for sensing chemical or biological agents, comprising: directly or indirectly contacting at least one first element of metal, preferably silver or gold, or of semiconductor, excitable to surface plasmon resonance, in particular localized surface plasmon resonance, with a sample comprising a chemical or biological agent to be sensed, irradiating the at least one first element and the at least one second element with electromagnetic radiation from a source, the at least one second element being pumped by a pumping unit for exciting surface plasmon resonance on said at least one first element and detecting the total electromagnetic radiation emitted by the exciton-plasmon coupled pumped at least one second element and at least one first element.

More generally, the second element could be a two-level-system TLS. A further special embodiment is characterized in further comprising an internal source capable of emitting the electromagnetic radiation.

1st Edition

Such an embodiment would be well suited for use of the nanosensor as a bio-sensor for sensing biological or chemical agents analytes. Conveniently, the system comprises a shielding for shielding the at least one second element against external electromagnetic radiation. More generally, the at least one second element might be a two-level-system TLS. In particular when being used as a biological sensor bio-sensor or chemical sensor, it might further comprise an internal source capable of emitting the electromagnetic radiation.

Finally, conveniently the method according to claim 19 or 20 further comprises identifying the identity of the chemical or biological agent based on the detected electromagnetic radiation. Further features and advantages of the invention will become clear from the claims and following description, in which embodiments of the invention are illustrated in detail with reference to the schematic drawings:.

The system 10 of Fig. Said nanosensor 12 comprises a nanoparticle 14 of metal, e. The nanoparticle 14 is excitable to surface plasmon resonance, in particular localized as surface plasmon resonance, in the presence of electromagnetic radiation 16 from an external source not shown. Furthermore, the nanosensor 12 comprises a quantum dot A quantum dot is normally a nanometer sized semiconductor region within another material of larger Band-gap.

In particular, the quantum dot 18 with diameter d 2 is situated in a distance of R to the nanoparticle 14 with the diameter d 1. The quantum dot 18 will be exciton-plasmon coupled to the nanoparticle 14 in the presence of the electromagnetic radiation 16 and will emit electromagnetic radiation 20 representative of the exciton-plasmon coupling. The nanosensor 12 and the quantum dot 18 are embedded in PGB-material The system 10 further comprises a detector not shown for detecting the electromagnetic radiation 20 emitted by the quantum dot 18 in response to the electromagnetic radiation 16 from the external source not shown.

Preferably, the system 10 comprises a shielding not shown for shielding the quantum dot 18 against external electromagnetic radiation, in particular the external electromagnetic radiation By way of the nanosensor 12 and the system 10 photons - perhaps even single photons - can be detected within very narrow spectral width and provide statistical information about them, e.

The PBG-material 22, e. But the PBG-material is not a must. PBG-materials are characterized as having a gap in their dispersion relation characterized by an upper and lower energy band, corresponding to frequencies of light that are forbidden to propagate within the PBG-medium. The system 10 can be described as made of a receiver or signal transformer, the quantum dot 18, situated near or close to the nanoparticle 14 that works as a photon collector. When photons of the electromagnetic radiation 16 from the external source not shown hit the nanoparticle 14, they excite certain plasmon modes that depend on the frequency of the photons and on the shape and material of the nanoparticle These plasmons, in turn, generate a certain dipole moment, which, and through the near-field, will couple to the transformer quantum dot 18 , which will also generate a dipole moment that is proportional in magnitude to that of the nanoparticle 14 which in turn is proportional to the frequency and intensity of the incident electromagnetic radiation The transformer quantum dot 18 will transform the signal coming from the nanoparticle 14 into a more readable signal , e.

This population difference carries within it the statistical properties of the incoming photons. The usage of the PBG-material 22 has the effect of increasing the sensitivity of the nanoparticle 14 to the frequency of the incident electromagnetic radiation The system 10 can be used to detect specific signals, especially those close to the plasmon frequency of the nanoparticle 14 as these plasmons resonate, almost spontaneously, at their natural frequency leading to a large induced dipole moment in the nanoparticle 14 and consequently a stronger signal will be transmitted.

In fact, the whole "system" can be tuned such that to resonate with very narrow frequency range. This can be done by designing the nanoparticle 14 and the quantum dot 18 such that they only resonate at a specific frequency, e.

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The nanoparticle 14 can come in any shape, configuration and material. The above configuration can be put in any other medium or configuration to produce the results desirable by the experimenter or manufacturer. Even though in Fig. The elements can take any shape for getting the desired results. The nanoparticle 14 can have non-isomorphic shape that can support multiple plasmon resonances. Thus, by tuning the exciting element nanopaiticle to these resonances, photons with different frequencies can be detected.

Optochemical Nanosensors - Google книги

A more readable signal is the usual electric signal that most electronics are using in their operations. Every nanoparticle will have a specific plasmonic resonance frequency based on its shape and material and the surrounding material. Consequently, the exciton plasmon coupling between the nanoparticle and the receiver, e. The outcome signal electromagnetic radiation 20 from the quantum dot 18 depends on this coupling, labelled omega.

Thus, the coupling between the nanoparticle 14 and the quantum dot 18 depends on the dipole moments of the nanoparticle 14 and the quantum dot 18, which in turn depends on the frequency of the incident electromagnetic radiation In addition, and as the below equation indicates, the signal lamda p coming out of the quantum dot 18 depends on the intensity of the electromagnetic radiation 16, which is proportional to the number of photons carried in the electromagnetic radiation Thus, from the below equation, if lambda p is known, the other statistics of the electromagnetic radiation 16 external field can also be deduced.

It is the electromagnetic radiation 16 that pumps the nanoparticle 14 which in turn will excite a population inversion in the electronic states of the quantum dot 18 and consequently produces the final signal. Said system 24 comprises a surface plasmon-based nanosensor Said nanosensor 26 comprises a nanoparticle 28 of metal, preferably silver or gold, or of semiconductor, as a first element. Said nanoparticle 28 is excitable to surface plasmon resonance, in particular localized surface plasmon resonance, in the presence of electromagnetic radiation from a source.

Furthermore, said nanosensor 26 comprises a quantum dot 30 as a second element for exciting surface plasmon resonance of the nanoparticle In the present example, the diameter d 1 of the nanoparticle 28 is the same as the diameter d 1 of the nanoparticle 14, the diameter d 2 of the quantum dot 30 is the same as the diameter d 2 of the quantum dot 18 and the distance between the nanoparticle 28 and the quantum dot 30 is R and the same as the distance R between the nanoparticle 14 and the quantum dot The nanoparticle 28 and the quantum dot 30 are totally embedded in PGB-material The system 24 further comprises a pumping unit not shown for pumping the quantum dot 30 by way of electromagnetic radiation 32 and a detector not shown for detecting the total electromagnetic radiation 34 emitted by the nanoparticle 28 and the quantum dot 30 in response to electromagnetic radiation 36 emitted by an external source not shown and incident on the nanoparticle 28 and the quantum dot Applying the electromagnetic radiation 36 to the nanoparticle 28 and the quantum dot 30 will induce changes in the properties of the emitted total electromagnetic radiation, e.

These changes are directly related to the properties of the electromagnetic radiation 36, e. Both the system 10 and the system 24 can be used to detect specific signals, especially those close to the plasmon frequency of the nanoparticle as these plasmons resonate, almost spontaneously, at their natural frequency leading to a large induced dipole moment in the nanoparticle and consequently a stronger signal will be transmitted.

Nanosensor Fabrication

Said systems are similar to the systems 10 and 24, respectively. In particular, the system 38 comprises a surface plasmon-based nanosensor Said nanosensor 40 comprises a nanoparticle 42 of metal, preferably silver or gold, or of semiconductor, as a first element. The nanoparticle 42 is excitable to surface plasmon resonance, in particular localized surface plasmon resonance, in the presence of electromagnetic radiation 44 from a source not shown.

In this example, said source might be external from the nanosensor 40 or inside the nanosensor Furthermore, the nanosensor 40 comprises a quantum dot 46 near the nanoparticle 42 as a second element. Said quantum dot 46 will be exciton-plasmon coupled to the nanoparticle 42 in the presence of the electromagnetic radiation 44 and will emit electromagnetic radiation 48 representative of the exciton-plasmon coupling.

In this example, the nanoparticle 42 and the quantum dot 46 have the same diameter d 1 and d 2 , respectively, as the nanoparticle 14 and the quantum dot 18 of fig.

Optochemical Nanosensors (Series in Sensors) Optochemical Nanosensors (Series in Sensors)
Optochemical Nanosensors (Series in Sensors) Optochemical Nanosensors (Series in Sensors)
Optochemical Nanosensors (Series in Sensors) Optochemical Nanosensors (Series in Sensors)
Optochemical Nanosensors (Series in Sensors) Optochemical Nanosensors (Series in Sensors)
Optochemical Nanosensors (Series in Sensors) Optochemical Nanosensors (Series in Sensors)
Optochemical Nanosensors (Series in Sensors) Optochemical Nanosensors (Series in Sensors)
Optochemical Nanosensors (Series in Sensors) Optochemical Nanosensors (Series in Sensors)
Optochemical Nanosensors (Series in Sensors) Optochemical Nanosensors (Series in Sensors)
Optochemical Nanosensors (Series in Sensors) Optochemical Nanosensors (Series in Sensors)

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