Introduction to Geopolitics: Tensions, Conflicts and Resolutions

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From North Korea to Venezuela, here are the conflicts to watch in 2018.

Ability to apply the scientific method to the social, political and economic questions posed by the globalized society as well as to raise a problem in this area, identifying a possible explanation or solution, and a method to contrast it by carefully interpreting the data. Ability to make critical judgments that include an ethical reflection on fundamental social, scientific and economic issues, both in the international order as well as in the national or local one. Ability to know the main models of territorial, political, economic and social organization of the states throughout history and at present.

Ability to understand the differentiating elements of international problems according to the degree of development of a country.

Ability to know to critically analyse fundamental political events of the past whose effects have reached our days. Ability to pose and solve basic problems of economic, social, political content at different scales from the international to the local , paying due attention to the historical precedents of these problems. Ability to know how to carry out case studies and apply the comparative method to analyse institutions, processes and policies of different countries.

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Ability to collect and interpret data and information providing support to conclusions, including, where applicable, reflection on social, scientific or ethical issues; LR4. Ability to deal with complex situations which might require the development of new solutions, both in the academic and the professional fields. Description of contents: programme.

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  8. Defininig the object of Geopolitics. Traditional subjects in geopolitical studies. Geographical features and global geopolitics: realist vs. Analyzing representations in Geopolitics: concepts and methodology. Cartography and geopolitics. On different ways of regionalizing and imagining the world: geopolitical consequences.

    Popular geopolitics and the mass media. Power analysis form a geopolitical point of view. Imperialist geopolitics' world view : maritime power and continental power. Global geopolitical theories and systems during the Cold War Post-Cold War geopolitics: from unipolarity to multipolarity. TOPIC 4. The study of concepts from a geopolitical point of view: concepts, methods and sources. Typology, cartography and evolution of geopolitical conflicts within post-Cold War world. Explaining the world map of geopolitical conflicts. Issues of citizenship and property rights play a significant role in many conflicts, for instance in the land conflicts in the Great Lakes Region of Africa.

    One of the causes of the war in the Democratic Republic of Congo was the appropriation of ancestral land by wealthy entrepreneurs. With some ethnic groups in better a position to take advantage, this also increased ethnic tensions.

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    Third, to limit inequalities between different groups after conflict, the peace process should include actors from all groups. Even where it may at times be more feasible to reach a settlement between the largest groups, others should be involved in the process as early and as closely as possible, even if they were not parties to the conflict.

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    A good example of this is the current efforts to improve the position to the Batwa in Burundi. Comprising about 1 percent of the population, they have been marginalized and were caught in the crossfire during the conflict between Hutu and Tutsi groups. The Arusha Agreement that ended the war stipulated that three seats in the National Assembly and three in the Senate be reserved for members of the Batwa community.

    Fourth, post-conflict reconstruction efforts should take account of possible inequalities between different groups, as these may have been a contributing factor to the conflict in the first place. For instance, a study undertaken after the conflict in Burundi finds that rebuilding damaged buildings without looking at their geographic and ethnic distribution runs the risk of reinforcing the inequalities that caused the war.

    Rebuilding the same schools that were burnt down, without building new ones in places that never had them previously, reinforces inequalities. To conclude, more research is needed to understand exactly how and when inequalities lead to conflict and what policies can prevent this. But it is clear that a wider lens is needed than the purely economic perspective taken by Collier and colleagues.

    Evidence shows that when inequalities intersect with ethnic, religious or regional divides, it creates a high risk of civil conflict. Inequalities in societies should thus be taken seriously. This includes looking at the ways in which inequalities are addressed, devoting attention to citizenship and property rights and inclusive peace processes, and making sure that reconstruction efforts in fragile post-conflict situations do not ignite renewed inequalities.

    That will not only lead to more equal societies, but can also prevent war.

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    Footnotes Sambanis, N. In: Globalization, Poverty, and Inequality. Brookings Trade Forum. Washington D. Hoeffler, A. Rohner, D. Department of Economics, University of Oxford.

    10 Conflicts to Watch in 2018

    Humphreys, M. Holmqcist, G. Discussion Paper 72, Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Uppsala, p. OECD Publishing, p. Gurr, T. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Morin, R. Collier, P. For instance, Fearon, J. Gubler, J. In: Journal of Conflict Resolution.

    The Changing International Order and the Risk of Conflict, a Conversation with Dr Bruce Jones

    Stewart, F. Oxford Development Studies. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Stewart Stewart and Brown, cited in Stewart, F. World Development Report Background Paper, p. Stewart , p. Cramer , p.

    When do inequalities cause conflict? – Focus on citizenship and property rights | The Broker

    Cederman, L. Weidmann, N. Paper prepared for presentation at Yale University, April , p. In:Journal of Peace Research. Iran might target U. In the southwest, Israel could view Iran-backed militias operating on and near the Golan Heights as a direct threat and take military action to push them back. Whether Moscow can prevent any Iranian or Hezbollah presence there, as it has pledged to do, is unclear. Israel may take matters into its own hands, striking Iran-allied forces.

    That pattern — prodding by Iran, pushback by Israel — could last for some time. But a wider confrontation is only one miscalculation away and could quickly spread beyond Syria, to Lebanon. Regime and allied forces appear to have shifted some attention from the east to those areas, placing that deal under stress.

    A regime offensive in the northwest could provoke massive destruction and displacement.

    Grounds for Peace; Territoriality and Conflict Resolution

    Malian soldiers stand guard in a military vehicle, outside the presidential palace in Bamako, on July 2, during a G5 Sahel summit, to boost Western backing for a regional anti-jihadist force for the Sahel region amid mounting insecurity and cross-border trafficking. Weak states across the Sahel region are struggling to manage an overlapping mix of intercommunal conflict, jihadi violence, and fighting over smuggling routes.

    The instability has opened a rich vein for jihadis, who piggyback on intercommunal conflict or use Islam to frame struggles against traditional authorities. As the situation has degenerated, the regional and international response has focused excessively on military solutions.

    Europeans in particular view the region as a threat to their own safety and a source of migration and terrorism.

    Introduction to Geopolitics: Tensions, Conflicts and Resolutions Introduction to Geopolitics: Tensions, Conflicts and Resolutions
    Introduction to Geopolitics: Tensions, Conflicts and Resolutions Introduction to Geopolitics: Tensions, Conflicts and Resolutions
    Introduction to Geopolitics: Tensions, Conflicts and Resolutions Introduction to Geopolitics: Tensions, Conflicts and Resolutions
    Introduction to Geopolitics: Tensions, Conflicts and Resolutions Introduction to Geopolitics: Tensions, Conflicts and Resolutions
    Introduction to Geopolitics: Tensions, Conflicts and Resolutions Introduction to Geopolitics: Tensions, Conflicts and Resolutions
    Introduction to Geopolitics: Tensions, Conflicts and Resolutions Introduction to Geopolitics: Tensions, Conflicts and Resolutions

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